What are the causes of brain hemorrhage? What are the symptoms of a brain hemorrhage? How is Brain Bleeding Diagnosed? What Should Be Done for Brain Hemorrhage Treatment? Yeni Yüzyıl University Gaziosmanpaşa Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery and Assoc. Dr. İdris Sertbaş answered those questions for those who are curious about the symptoms of brain hemorrhages.
What are the causes of brain hemorrhage?
Brain hemorrhage can develop due to many reasons;
- High blood pressure or hypertension (more common in the elderly) is the most common cause.
- Bubble (Aneurysm) rupture in the veins
- Tear of the vascular ball (Arteriovenous malformation)
- Trauma (more common in children and teenagers) happens
- Blood thinners
How is Brain Bleeding Diagnosed?
Headache is a very common finding, but of course, not every headache is a sign of cerebral hemorrhage. Headaches due to cerebral hemorrhage are severe, and these pains can be so severe that they awaken from sleep. However, when there is the slightest doubt, it is useful to consult a doctor.
Symptoms of brain hemorrhage vary depending on where the bleeding occurs. For example, if the bleeding is in a speech-related part, speech impairment may occur, and if it is in a vision-related part, visual impairment may occur.
What are the symptoms?
- Weakness, numbness, tingling on one side of the body
- Speech and visual impairment (blurred vision, double vision, etc.)
- Weakening of consciousness, being indifferent to the events and sounds in the environment, sleepiness
- balance disorders
- Seizures in the form of fainting, convulsions and tremors
- nausea, vomiting
- Neck stiffness (pain in the neck when bending the neck forward, resistance to movement)
- Involuntary drooping of the eye, drooping of the eyelid, sensitivity to light
- difficulty swallowing
- hand tremor
Brain tomography (CT) is usually the first examination performed. Very fast results are obtained. It is very helpful in showing the location and amount of bleeding. If a cerebral hemorrhage is detected in the tomography, additional tests such as tomographic angiography (CT angiography), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography and angiography (DSA) performed through the groin may be needed to reveal the underlying cause of the hemorrhage.
What should be done for the treatment
Brain hemorrhages are extremely urgent and serious medical problems. Treatment; It is aimed at alleviating the effects of bleeding, preventing possible complications and eliminating the cause of bleeding, if any. Depending on the severity of bleeding, patients are usually followed and treated in the intensive care unit.
If the blood clot developing after bleeding is small, close monitoring of blood pressure and keeping it at normal levels is usually sufficient. Brain tomography is taken at frequent intervals to check whether the blood clot has grown. After a while, this blood clot disappears from here, just as the bruising in other parts of the body disappears. If the bleeding and blood clot that occurs is very large and has destroyed a significant part of the brain, then unfortunately there is not much that can be done. Emergency surgery is usually not enough to save the patient from this condition. In some cases, the blood clot and the disorder causing the bleeding are surgically removed. Surgery can be applied if the blood clot is getting larger or causing deterioration in vital functions.
In subarachnoid hemorrhages due to aneurysm, closure of the aneurysm is necessary to prevent rebleeding. For this, surgical clipping or coiling is performed. In general, among the ways to prevent brain hemorrhages; avoiding high blood pressure, avoiding smoking and head trauma especially if blood thinners are used.